This study aimed at highlighting the role and of cognitive and social factors in influencing the intention to smoke among adolescents. It also aimed at highlighting how other extended models such as the I-change impact the intention to smoke as a means of revealing the existing inconsistencies with the cognitive and social factors in influencing the intention to smoke. Therefore, to address these issues the study undertook three of the four main perspectives in social psychology. These are the social cultural perspective that proposes that the learning of behavior takes is through-interactions of problem-solving with children and adults and through the interactions they are able to learn the societal norms and values. Moreover, it undertakes the social learning perspective that suggests that behavior is learnt through the mimicking of other people’s behaviors. This is indicated where the authors state that parents and teachers can be a source of influence for the adolescents. Finally, the social-cognitive perspective is also used that postulates that through the understanding of the information processing process one can understand the patterns of thoughts that influence behavior. This was used to highlight the cognitive influence in promoting the intention to smoke among adolescents.

Sample Description, Research Design/Type of Data, Major Findings, and Hypothesis
This study was conducted in Portugal, therefore, the sample comprised of 3,064 adolescents from the country. These adolescents had an average age of 13.5 years and were selected from the seventh grade class beginners in school. In regards to the findings, the results the model for measuring social influence was supported and had a variance of 29% of the intention to smoke. The other model that included attitude and self-efficacy had a variance of 55% in the intention to smoke. The findings revealed that the perceived peers behaviors, parental norms, and perceived parental behavior were the main social factors that had an impact on the intention to smoke by adolescents. The result supported the hypothesis that different referents placed their influence in the intention to smoke through various types of social influence.
Quality of Reported Research
The research as presented was of average quality due to various factors. First, the study has no well-defined research question that can be easily identified by any reader as it is only inferred or implied in the study especially through the objectives. Moreover, the description of the theoretical frameworks used in this study has not been explicitly provided and one is required to refer to previous research studies making comprehension difficult especially for a layman. The critical assumption is also not well discussed and explained. However, the presentation and discussion of the results is well-done and sufficient resources and alternative perspectives, and criticisms have been provided. Finally, the data is also presented in a manner that can be replicated by other individuals.

Difference in Approach
To improve this study I would clearly highlight the research questions to that they can be easily identified by any reader. Moreover, I would give a clear explanation to the theoretical frameworks undertaken in the study to enhance clarity. In regards to the theoretical perspectives, since the study referred to most of the theoretical perspectives in social psychology, I would not choose another approach hence the results would essentially be the same, but with a different research organization.

Article 2
Title, Author, Citation, and Description of the Research Question/Hypothesis
Scalici, F., & Schulz, P. J. (2014, July 3). Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older. PLoS ONE, 9(7), 1-7. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101275
The tile of the study was, “Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older.” This research was done and written by Francesca Scalici and Peter J. Schulz and published in and by PLOS ONE in 2014. The study had a single research question and four hypotheses. The research question was which factor between approval by parents and approval by peers would have a greater effect on the intention to smoke among adolescents (RQ1). The hypotheses were first that students who have the thought that their parents approve smoking among adolescents will have a greater intention to smoke compared to those who thought their parents would disapprove adolescent smoking (H1). Second, students that thought their peers approved smoking by adolescents will have a greater smoking intention compared those that thought their peers would disapprove. Third, older students will present a weaker effect of the perception of the approval by their parents on the intention to smoke compared to the younger students. Finally, the older students would show a greater effect of the perceived approved to smoke by peers on their intention to smoke in comparison to the younger students.

Theoretical Perspective Used
This study employed the social cultural perspective in social psychology. This theory places its importance on culture and social norms. The perspective proposes that learning occurs in children through interactions of problem-solving with other children and adults. Through such interactions they can be able to learn about the societal norms and values. This perspective considers how norms from a particular culture and social influence impact the behavior of an individual. This is because in the study, the researchers take the perspective that different factors such as the social, cultural, and economic conditions have an influence on the decision consume substances including being initiated to substance use. They argue that the social context is a strong factor for substance abuse and state that social norms are linked to the use of substances by adolescents. They considered norms as features contained in small groups that adolescents learn that play a key role in the decision to use substances hence the social cultural perspective.
Sample Description, Research Design/Type of Data, Major Findings, and Hypothesis
The collection of data was done through a cross sectional survey method between October 2011 and January 2012. This collection was done by the Universita della Svizzera Italiana’s Institute of Communication and Health that collaborated with the non-smokers association of Switzerland in Ticino and the Cantonal School Department. The sample comprised of students that came from Ticino’s 42 public and private middle schools. The total numbers of classes was 598 and out of these only 258 were selected randomly to be part of the survey. Out of the 258, 69 were in first grade, 69 second grade, and 73 and 74 from the third and fourth grades respectively. There were 5,657 correctly completed questionnaires that represented 96% of the selected sample’s response rate and 46.3% of the school’s student population.
The findings of the study were that the approval by peers and families significantly influenced the intention of students to smoke. The age of the students moderated this relationship significantly where the effect of approval by the parents reduced as the students grew older. On the other hand, the effect of approval by peers increased with age while there was no difference among boys and girls and Students that do not come from Switzerland having a greater likelihood to smoke compared to those who are citizens. From these findings, all the hypotheses of this study were confirmed.

Quality of Reported Research
The quality of this research is good as it has a well-defined research question and well identified research hypothesis that can be easily understood. It also provides a clear description of the context and scope of the study and the existing information about the issues at hand. It provides a good presentation of its evidence ad a proper presentation of the data analysis in a replicable manner. It, moreover, provides a good discussion and conclusion of the study and has adequate references. However, it does not consider various theoretical perspectives and does not have any contrary findings and criticism.

Difference in Approach
To improve this study, I would factor in various theoretical perspectives to increase the dynamic in the research and research findings. Through this I would present some contradicting findings. I would also include some criticisms to the study methods and findings. For the theoretical perspective I would use the social learning perspective. The hypotheses would this time differ and consider the impact of social learning through peers and parents in initiating substance use among adolescents. The data would be the same but would not consider H3 and H4 parts of the hypotheses.

Article 3
Title, Author, Citation, and Description of the Research Question/Hypothesis
Kopp, S., & Park, K. (2014). The Impact of Parental Socialization Methods of Young Adults Males’ and Females’ Substance Use. Journal of Integrated Social Sciences, 4(1), 33-54.
The title of this study was, “The Impact of Parental Socialization Methods on Young Adult Males’ and Females’ Substance Use.” The research was conducted by Samantha Kopp and Keumjae Park and published in the Journal of Integrated Social Sciences in 2014. The study does not have explicit research questions and/or hypothesis; however, the questions can be inferentially derived. These are whether parental knowledge and being close to their children are linked the frequency and amount of drugs and alcohol consumed by students in college. Another question is how the relationship varies depending on the child’s or parent’s gender. Finally, what variations exist between the variables among children that live with their parents and those that do not live with their parents.

Theoretical Perspective Used
While this study has not employed any specific and direct theoretical perspective from social psychology, the arguments are based on some of these perspectives. This study inherently uses the social cultural perspective. This is because its argument is based on the notion that through the attachment formed between the parents and their child including the parenting style, the child can learn and continue using in increasing amounts alcohol and other drugs. Therefore, through the interaction and parenting skills the child learns the norms and values in related to alcohol and substance abuse. Moreover, depending on the gender of either the parent or the child the norms and values taught by the parent to the child determine not only the initiation, but also the continued use of alcohol and other drugs among different genders.
Sample Description, Research Design/Type of Data, Major Findings, and Hypothesis
The initial sample for the study comprised of 120 undergraduate students that were aged between 18 and 20 years who were attending a middle sized university in New Jersey for four years. Data collection was done using in-person surveys that were administered during and after classes. The election of students was using the cluster sampling method where general education courses during and after their classes. The study’s sample composed of 67 females and 52 males, but among these, one person denied to specify their gender. Out of these 49.2% was still living with their parents while 50.8% were not. Further 65.8% of the selected sample were Caucasian and 34.8% comprised of the other races. This data was not a good representation of the total population of the university, but it has a balanced proportion in regards to gender and the type of residence that were the controlling variables in the study. The results of this study revealed that the level of knowledge by the mother and father including closeness impact males and females substance use differently. Moreover, the socialization methods of the parents and substance use are affected whether the individual lives or does not live with the parents.

Quality of Reported Research
The quality of the research was good due to several factors the study did not have a well-defined research question. Moreover, there was no clear discussion of the critical assumptions, and contrary findings. The sample was also not representative hence cannot be generalized. However, it had a good description of the context of the study and the already existing information. The evidence, data, and research findings are presented in a way that could be understood and replicated by other researchers or readers. The study also provides adequate conclusions and discussions including implications for future research with adequate references.

Difference in Approach
To improve this study I would include a clear discussion of the critical assumptions and generate well-defined and identifiable research questions and hypotheses for the study. Moreover, would select a sample size that is completely representative of the entire populations to ensure generalization of the results. I would consider the evolutionary perspective in social psychology. This perspective postulates that behaviors are genetically developed or inherited and places its emphasis on the biological role and generational genetic transmission in explaining an individual’s current behavior. The behavior of engaging in substance abuse and the increase in the level of abuse would be an aspect of genetic transmission across all genders. Therefore, the hypothesis of the study would be reduced to two that those children that have a genetic predisposition to alcohol and substance use are likely to have higher levels of use. The other hypothesis will be that gender in genetic inheritance does not influence the use and increase in use of alcohol and other drugs.
Crucial Essay Section Synthesis
The essays selected are all complementary to each other as they highlight how socialization factors play a role in the initiation and continuing alcohol and substance use including the escalation of the same. They also complement each other in the sense that they all at the fundamental level employ perspectives in social psychology using different approaches of research design, data collection, and data analysis. This allows to solidify the validity and reliability of the theoretical perspectives in explaining social and behavioral phenomena. Moreover, the essays are complementary as they have conducted the study with different sample groups starting from adolescents to adults and this is vital in highlighting how different age groups are influenced by socialization factors. Moreover, they complement each other as they provide a gender perspective. The findings are consistent except for the study by Victoria et al. (2009) that highlighted that there other inherent factor that a not addressed in the four perspectives that influence initiation to substance use. This provides weak evidence because essentially the elements contained in the I-change model are still the same ones contained in the other perspectives of social psychology.
From the combination of the three articles it is comprehensible that socialization factors begin affecting individuals from early adolescence to adult. This initiation and escalation of use is dependent on the approval by either peers or parents or both. Moreover, that gender also influences the escalation of drug use among individuals depending on the relationship with parents. Finally, that living or not living with one’s caregivers is a determinant of substance use.

Article 1: Title and Abstract
The impact of social influence on adolescent intention to smoke: Combining types and referents of influence

Abstract
Objectives. Theory and research suggest that the intention to smoke is the main determinant of smoking initiation and emphasizes the role of cognitive and social factors on the prediction of the intention to smoke. However, extended models such as the I-Change and results from published studies reveal inconsistencies regarding the impact of social influence on the intention to smoke. Possible explanations for this may be the definition and measurement of the constructs that have been used.
Design and methods. The current study was designed with two main goals: (i) to test a measurement model for social influence, combining different types of social influence (subjective norms, perceived behavior, and direct pressure) with various referents of influence (parents, siblings, peers, and teachers); (ii) to investigate the impact of social influence on adolescent intention to smoke, controlling for smoking behavior. LISREL was used to test these models. The sample includes 3,064 Portuguese adolescents, with a mean age of 13.5 years, at the beginning of the seventh school grade.
Results. The hypothesized measurement model of social influence was supported by results and explained 29% of the variance of the intention to smoke. A more extended model, including attitude and self-efficacy, explained 55% of the variance of the intention to smoke. Perceived behavior of peers, parental norms, and perceived behavior of parents were the social influence factors with impact on adolescent intention to smoke.

Conclusions. Results suggest that different referents exert their influence through distinct types of social influence and recommend further work on the definition and measurement of social influence.

Article 2: Title and Abstract
Influence of Perceived Parent and Peer Endorsement on Adolescent Smoking Intentions: Parents Have More Say, But Their Influence Wanes as Kids Get Older.

Abstract
Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents’ perception of parents’ and peers’ smoking approval influences adolescent smoking intention, and how age affects this influence in a Swiss sample of adolescents. To know the influence of age can help to develop specific prevention programs tailored to the age group’s needs.
Method: in a cross sectional survey, students aged between 11 and 14 from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) answered questions on smoking habits, parents’ and peers’ approval and intention to smoke.
Results: Peers’ and parents’ approval significantly influence students’ smoking intention, and students’ age significantly moderates this relation: the effect of parents’ approval decreases for older adolescents, while the effect of peers’ approval increases with age. No difference is found between girls and boys, while non-Swiss are more likely to smoke than Swiss students.
Conclusions: as literature suggests, results evidence the role parents play during early adolescence. Prevention programs targeting parent-child communication in early adolescence for preventing children’s tobacco consumption are strongly supported.

Article 3: Title and Abstract

The Impact of Parental Socialization Methods on Young Adult Males’ and Females’ Substance Use
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between parental socialization methods, closeness and knowledge, and young adults’ substance use patterns. The current study adds to prior research by assessing the impact of gender and residency status on the relationship between parenting and substance use. Participants included 120 undergraduate students between the ages of 18-25, the period of young adulthood. Results revealed that mother’s and father’s levels of knowledge and closeness have differing impacts on males’ and females’ substance use frequency. Furthermore, the relationship between parental socialization methods and substance use are impacted by whether the young adult lives with or without one’s parents. The following research provides insight on the continuing importance of the parent-child relationship during young adulthood.