The research is a critical analysis of principles of management. A research on this case study is done on an organization adopting new technological innovation. Due to advent of computer, information technology has become the frequent word that comes out of the mouth of various organizations that seek to stay competitive in this ever changing business world. Information technology refers to a process whereby computers and software are used in management of the information. Information is stored, protected, processed, shared and can be retrieved when need arise by use of the technology (Adler & Gundersen, 2008). The paper in addition brings forth the importance of and managerial implications of adopting new technologies.
Many organizations have adopted new technologies with the hope that it will help propel them to greater heights. Indeed change is inevitable and a complex venture, but the only way to ascertain survival and success of organizations in the future. It is worth noting that if technological adoption is not well planned for, or managed; problems are bound to occur, in fact very serious ones.
Thus, principles of management which refers to the way things are planned, directed, organized and controlled to foster attainment of desired predetermined goals and objectives have been deemed to be integral and very fundamental factor than enhance successful, effective and efficient management. According to Fayol, 1916, there are fourteen principles of management that are of paramount importance to attaining sound management. They include; division of labor, authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, subordination of individual interest, unity of direction, esprit de corps, initiative, order scalar chain degree of centralization and remuneration.
Literature of the problem
IT has been adopted by most of organization believing that it’s inevitable in ensuring that they survive in the future, improve the way they operate operations, efficient provision of service and products. Technology has made things to be easy, quick, and reliable, convenient and efficient (Rogers, 1983). IT does have both positive and negative implications to organizations, customers and the clients. If technology is adopted without thorough analysis and evaluation of organization culture, behavior and to knowledge of employees to use such technology, problems are bound to be experienced countering the initial concepts that drove such organizations to adopt a given technology, being a self defeating concept. For instance maladaptive adoption of new technology can lead to declined productivity.
Traditionally, two factors have led to adoption of new technology; improving services delivery and after implementation is completed, anticipated fiscal benefits as well those associated with efficiency and productivity will be realized. What usually misses from such notion is the consideration of the effect that employees’ willingness and knowledge to adopting new technology might have on successful diffusion and realization of these two beliefs hence a social system where it is found. This is a fact that most leaders in most cases fail to realize when trying to effectively integrate an innovation within their jurisdictions (Adler & Gundersen, 2008).
Importance of adopting technologies
As stated previously, innovation or information technology has been adopted to enhance a number of issues within an organization. The major advantage of adopting IT is to enhance revenue generation. On the same note, it brings with it improved service delivery if well thought and implemented, it brings convenience, reliability, and IT has also enabled interconnection within and without making communication more effective and timely. In addition it has made day to day running of the organization easy, quick and efficient.
Managerial implication and Skills to successfully address the problems
Installation of new technology for instance a computer at it point of sale in a restaurant brought serious problem. Although the computer was intended to increase speed in service delivery, energy, efficiency and increase productivity, the inability of the cooks to read made them to work twice as hard. This is because in addition to entering the customers’ orders in the terminal area, they had to go to the kitchen to inform the cooks what are the orders placed by customers (Debbie & Walczyk, 2007).
It was established that the firm that carried out consultation for installation of the computer at the point of sale didn’t assessed the skill, knowledge and possibly the willingness of the employees to embrace the new technology. The firm also trained the restaurant manager who did not train his cooks and waiters. The results therefore include, long-time employees that were more experience resigned, a section of employees complained of having too much work, poor service delivery and poor employees attitudes and consequently low productivity and loss of customers (Rogers, 1983).
Additionally, in other scenarios other than that of the restaurant; other factors that need to be considered before adopting an innovation include the cost of installation, alternatives if available (can you do without it), skills, knowledge and willingness of the employees, managing the adoption process (Debbie & Walczyk, 2007).
Similarly, there are skills that are generally acceptable and deemed to aid managers in winning support of the entire team in adopting innovations. This can be achieved by developing and practice positive influence for change.
According to Adler & Gundersen, 2008 the first step is to have in place an effective channel of communication, when mangers actively listen to employees they will be in a position to be at the same page hence collectively attain the predetermined goals. By showing the team members that what is desired is in line with the policies and procedures and are consistent with the requests, goals values, mission, objectives and directives of the management will help curb resistance. Talking authoritatively and confidently, citing higher management when making your request help in influencing the team positively
Manager behaving in a manner that will set an example to the employees, for instance showing interest to adopting innovation, follow laid down procedures and guidelines-generally doing and demonstrating the right way to do things. Practice what you preach (Wendee et al., 2009).
Making the entire process all inclusive and participatory as possible is a skill that is key to forge ahead in adopting IT. This will make the team feel they are part and parcel of the project and will give all there efforts in achieving the desired purpose. Including them in making decisions, problem solving gives the member opportunities to not only learn but not to reject the outcomes of the decisions arrived at (Rogers, 1983). Creation of network of followers and building consensus is vital
Managers behaving in a warm and a friendly manner influence subordinates to cooperate. Such managers build a good rapport as they listen actively and carefully as well as addressing issues that are in common between the manager and his followers. This provides the members the opportunity to freely communicate with their managers thus making there views known about any issue in question.
It is also important for the manager to logically persuade his/her team members. It is necessary to use evidence to justify or explain a position taken and at the same time rely on knowledge of experts to provide factual reasons with support of tables, figures, and data as evidence. This will give them a limelight and support the request (Wendee et al., 2009).
From the review of IT adoption, it is paramount for the managers to be equipped with various skills and knowledge to effectively ensure that the adoption process is smooth. Effective communication, actively listening and building consensus are key elements that will foster attainment of the desired goals.
Adler, N. J., & Gundersen, A. (2008). International dimensions of organizational behavior (5th Ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.
Debbie L. Rabina & David J. Walczyk (2007). “Information professionals’ attitude towards the adoption of innovations in everyday life”. New York: Pratt Institute. Vol. 12 No. 4
Fayol, H & Urwick, L. (1965). General and Industrial Management. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd
Rogers, Everett. (1983). Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press.
Wendee Aardema et al., (2009). Plan for Positive Influence. University of Phoenix. Retrieved on 6th November 2010