The global change in agricultural economy has caused tremendous rural-urban migration in a variety of countries. This paper will consider Guatemala/ Mexico, India and Japan. All these countries deal with the problem differently. Those in Guatemala /Mexico have resulted to illegal immigration into the United States in search for employment and source of income (Kim, 2003). Other farmers have sold their land to the foreign investors who are able to afford high quality coffee which is exported to developed countries. Japan dwellers have opted to move to the city in search for other sources of income. This has resulted into Tokyo becoming one of the highly populated cities on earth (Cohn, 2005). Indian farmers seem to take the worst choice of all. Majority of the farmers commit suicide by drinking the chemical substances meant to make their crops productive. It is evidenced that over 25,000 farmers have committed suicide since 1997. The three countries compare in that all the farmers are desperate and have resulted to internal and external immigration in search of food and income.
Just like all the other countries in the world, the issue of rural-urban migration is common in the three countries. Poor agricultural economies have frustrated farmers in different ways thus migrating to the urban areas in search for employment. There is also a similarity in disappearance of the youths from the poor rural regions searching for better life in the urban areas (Cohn, 2005). This has subsequently led to overpopulation and unemployment in the urban areas. It goes without saying that the evils related to unemployment such as insecurity, smuggling, prostitution and other illegal activities are taking place in the three countries.
Solutions to the problems faced by farmers mainly depend on government intervention. The Guatemala/ Mexico government can assist the farmers to solve the international coffee crisis by imposing high taxes and import duties to coffee importers. This will prevent importation of cheap coffee from Brazil and Vietnam thus promoting consumption of locally made coffee (Kim, 2003). The government can help the farmers through encouragement of coffee processing investors into the country thus providing a ready market to the local coffee and also creating employment. Japan government can intervene by imposing high tax and high import duties to the importers of agricultural based products such as rice so as to reduce competition. The Indian government can help their farmers through introduction of well developed and equipped research firms to come up with high quality machinery, pesticides, hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizers thus reducing the large amount of capital consumed by farmers in purchasing these products from other countries. They can also be encouraged to use organic manure since the main problem lies in the type of soil and not in the plants.
Cohn, Jason. Japan: The Slow Life Tune in, drop out, grow rice. 2005. Retrieved on 19 November 2010
Kim, Roberts. Guatemala/ Mexico: Coffee country.2003. Retrieved on 19 November 2010