Valentine (1998) defines Type 2 diabetes as a lifelong disease that is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood. Through research, Type 2 diabetes has been found to be the most common form of diabetes. This type of diabetes is caused by the problem of the body making less insulin or not utilizing the available insulin appropriately. Insulin is very important as it helps to move excess blood glucose into cells so that it can be stored as fats and later utilized for energy production. In case excess blood sugar is not absorbed into cells for it to be converted into fats, a problem called hyperglycemia takes place which is characterized by the build-up of abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. Normally, as the levels of glucose in the blood stream increases, the pancreas is triggered to produce more insulin. But in this case, the insulin becomes inadequate that it cannot keep up the demand of the body (Clarke, et al. 2003).   

Research findings by Levin, et al. (2005) show that insulin resistance cases are mostly experienced by those individuals who are overweight. This is because fat usually interferes with the ability of the body to utilize insulin. Most of the thin people who are affected by this disease are the elderly especially aged above 45 years of age since their body organ system is weaker that it cannot easily convert the fats in the body into energy to allow insulin work effectively. In some cases, genetics and family history play a significant role in the acquisition of this common type of diabetes such that the disease is inherited by the progeny if the parents were affected. Ethnicity is another risk factor, for instance, Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans have been found to have increased rates of diabetes (Lasser, et al., 2006).

By Poland, et al. (1998), it is apparent that the choices individuals make on a daily basis determine their physiological well-being.  There are a number of steps to enable an individual to have a healthier lifestyle which can reduce or prevent the possibility of developing Type 2 diabetes as well as pre-diabetes. These can comprise of maintaining a healthy weight, eating a healthy and balanced diet, ensuring that one does regular physical activities, by avoiding smoking cigarette, and by keeping one’s health in check. So that an individual can maintain a healthy body weight, it is advisable to exercise the body regularly as well as eat the foods which can provide the body with healthy diet, one should also talk to the concerned healthcare givers regarding the appropriate weight that they should have at that particular time, and it is better for an individual to learn how to calculate their Body Mass Index (Pearlin, 1992).

To ensure a healthy and balanced diet, it is advisable to eat a diet constituting a variety of foods for instance protein rich foods, green vegetables for vitamins, and carbohydrates. Plenty of fruits and vegetables should be eaten daily especially 5 to 10 vegetables and fruits per day. Meals with high fiber content especially soluble fiber should be consumed to enable the hormone insulin to perform well. This is because the soluble fiber slows down the release of ingested food into the intestine and prevents the blood sugar from elevating rapidly. Thus for the patients of Type 2 diabetes, taking enough soluble fiber is often very important as they will be allowed to take a smaller amount of diabetes medication. Eating less salt and fats can also ensure the physiological well-being of an individual’s body as the accumulation of fats hinders the insulin from carrying out its function of converting glucose into fats. The amount of alcohol that an individual consumes should also be limited since a lot of it can result in high blood pressure and consequently bring about the risk of Type 2 diabetes (Gropper & Smith, 2008).

Regular physical activities ensure fewer fats around the body organs and tissues hence insulin finds conducive environment to work in. It’s advisable that an individual should be active for a period of at least 30 minutes daily. Activities that build strength, flexibility, and endurance are very significant and should be included, and it will be very important if an individual enjoys the activities. Smoking is another dangerous behavior to the well being of an individual since the nicotine narrows the blood vessels and consequently increases blood pressure which is another risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. Some people absorb the second-hand smoke as they get new the smoking zone but never realize that they well are affected the same way the smoking people will be affected. There it is advisable to keep a distance from the smoking zones to avoid the consequent effects (Poland, et al. 1998).

It is very important to keep one’s health in the check, for instance getting enough bed rest by sleeping. Getting enough sleep enables the brain to relax and regain energy for various body activities. Through research findings, it has been found that reduced quantity of sleep can weaken appetite regulation and the metabolism of glucose resulting in amplified risk of obesity which at long run will bring about diabetes. Consecutive nights of interrupted sleep seem to put individuals at increased risk of getting infected with type 2 diabetes. Being active is also very crucial since physical activities reduce stress which could otherwise hinder the normal functioning of the body’s organ system. Managing high blood pressure, glucose and cholesterol reduce the tendency of being attacked by Type 2 diabetes (Pearlin, 1992).

Indubitably, it is very important for an individual to be engaged in regular physical activities for at least 30 minutes every day. This can considerably reduce the number of fats in the body which could otherwise reduce the activity of the insulin hormone.  Regular exercises also enhance quick oxidation of excess sugars hence reducing the level of glucose in the blood to normal. Measures like regular physical activities have also been found to bring about health problems to individuals especially when they are sick. It is not advisable for an individual to exercise when for instance their blood sugar level exceeds300 mg/dl, they have difficulties with breathing, they are sick in whichever way, their urine has got ketones, or they are experiencing any prickling, numbness or pain in their legs. If one’s medication is speaking, it is also important not to exercise (Frank, 2005).

The fruit diet has been found to reduce the incidences of Type 2 diabetes in the world population. Due to misconceptions, this has been found to have its shortcomings to the well-being of an individual. There should be a specification on the type of fruits and vegetables that should be taken in plenty and those which should be taken in low quantities. For instance, some fruits contain more sugar than others such that if fruits with a lot of sugar are consumed in large quantities every day, the level of sugar in the blood stream will increase hence putting an individual at the risk of becoming diabetic. It is advisable that a serving of fruit should contain carbohydrates amounting to 15 grams. Therefore it is advantageous to consume low-carbohydrate fruits since they can be consumed in plenty thus reducing the incidences of Type 2 diabetes (Levin, et al. 2005).

According to Lasser, et al. (2006), in America a special type of food called pizza is usually very important in preventing diabetes. So, most of the individuals in the American population eat the pizza on a daily basis since it is a healthy food containing complex carbohydrates, proteins, and vegetables. By research findings, it has been found that when eaten too much, pizza has its own shortcomings to the American population in spite of it being a balanced diet. This kind of food increases blood sugars to shoot up when eaten too much and as a result, can cause diabetes. Pizza is also classified under the food with high-fat content. Foods with high-fat content like pizza can cause a delayed absorption of carbohydrates for some hours after one has eaten and as a result, the level of blood sugar will be kept elevated for about 8 hours (L. & Henry, 2002).

Among the types of diabetes, Type 2 diabetes is the most common in any given human population. It can be distinguished from the other types of diabetes such that it can attack an individual even when insulin hormone is normally produced in the body. Type 2 diabetes comes into being when the insulin does not carry out its task effectively, that is, it does not convert the excess sugars in the blood stream into the form that can be stored for future use. It has been found that the factors which increase the accumulation of fats in the body enhance the incidences of Type 2 diabetes, for instance consuming a lot of fatty foods, and sometimes staying idle without doing physical activity. Also, those factors which can increase the blood pressure, causes the disease, for example, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption.