The mechanisms developed by the congress to regulate its relationship with the regulatory agencies are mainly aimed at the institutionalization of public participation mechanisms in order to enable the public views. According to (Cooper, 2004) these mechanisms includes; to institutionalize governing councils which planned on normative content of formation, institutionalization of channels for public participation of different segments of the civil society in decision making process and reduction of mechanism which has organized and mechanized the interests of the pre-established powers in the state bureaucracy.

These mechanisms help in ensuring the participation of all the sectors of the civil society, Provides more information on the purposes of economic and social regulation of the society, and lastly, it publishes the state bureaucracy’s acts.

However, the autonomy of each agency in relation to the legislature and the specificities of public participation of mechanisms in each regulatory agency can not be evaluated easily due to the conditions of participation that are internally laid down by bureaucracy.

The congress grants the discretional authority to the administrative agents in the processes of carrying out the government programs. The discretion authority that is granted to the administrative agents and public administration ensures that the decisions made by these two bodies can not be easily reviewed as in the case of the legislature and t judiciary (Mashaw, 1985).

In the United States, the constitution doesn’t grant a complete authority to the administrative agents but the congress is charged by the mandate to create an administrative agent. This is part of the congress’ extension of its authority in the law-making process. The executive is only given limited powers to the management of the administrative agents; in this case the president may appoint the head of the agent. The judiciary interacts with the administrative agents while handling the cases. According to the United States law and equity, the judiciary has the right to review the decisions of the administrative agents but only in some circumstances.

The social security Administration agency deals with the regulations that concern the regulation of income for the disabled. This agent is also charged with the responsibility of deciding who should be termed as disabled and who should not. Another agent who is called equal Employment opportunity commission deals with all the issues that are related to sexual harassment. It determines as to which cause to take in case of an act of sexual harassment and closely monitors the claim to ensure justice. The third example of an administrative agent is the Immigration and Naturalization Service. This agency is not only meant to facilitate the setting up immigration quotas but also its role is to make individual decisions that concern the deportation of people who are in the United States illegally.

In order to carry out a review on the agency’s decision under the set standard of abuse of discretion, a court of law must follow a typical three-part analysis; this is part of the protection mechanisms that have been employed in the discretion of autonomy to the Administrative agency. The First step is for the court of law to look into the legislations that had already been passed by the Congress that gave the decision-making authority to that particular administrative agency. The court of law should then analyze the scenario and then determine if the administrator’s action was within the limits of that authority. Secondly, the court of law will then proceed forward in determining whether a clear error of judgment occurred or it didn’t. If a clear error can not be traced, then that court of law is not mandated to substitute the judgment decision that had already been made by the administrative agency or the Public administration; In case of an evident error, then the court of law would itself commit an abuse of discretion as outlined under the law. Thirdly, court of law must determine whether the administrator followed the procedure while executing the decision.

Court of law that are involved with the process of reviewing the administrative decisions for abuse of discretion normally give great deference to the Public administrator or the administrative agency, which not only has the necessary expertise in the area concerning the case but also had access to the available facts which helped in the decision-making process in that case. This type of protection mechanism gives the Public administration or the administrative agencies lot of the opportunities to efficiently and effectively execute the authority granted to them through the Congress.

A conflict may arise between judiciary and administrative agency in some cases especially for the Agencies that are involved with foreign affairs, such an agency is the Board of Immigration in the United States. The Board of Immigration can make a decision that is difficult for the court of law to reverse like the appeal to uphold an immigration case’s decision to deport an alien. This is because the alien may seek the help of the attorney general to reverse a deportation order. In case the attorney general find enough evidence to uphold the deportation order, the process of reviewing this discretionary decision will be difficult.

In United States, powerful administrative agencies, such as Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Social Security Administration agency, and the Board of Immigration, have been given the mandate to make rules and a carry out major decisions, This is and implication that they have the powers to make rules and decisions in matters of their concern.



Cooper, P. (2004). Cases on Public Law and Public Administration. Stamford: Centragage Learning

Mashaw, J. (1985). Due Process in the Administrative State. New Haven: Yale University Press.